In chartering, and, indeed, in any contract the expression “exceptions clause” describes the effect on liability of one or both parties to the contract. Such clauses fall under a general heading of “protective clauses”. The phrases, “exclusion clauses”, “exemption clauses” and “force majeure” clauses are sometimes used instead of “exceptions clause”. These clauses generally exclude the liability of a party. There are other clauses that have a smaller effect of merely reducing the amount of compensation payable. These are “limitation of liability” clauses.